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e-Learning | No. 55

敬語の種類
Classification and function of honorifics

keigo
敬語は5種類に分けて考えることができます。
Keigo can be divided into 5 categories
 
1) 尊敬語 : 「いらっしゃる・おっしゃる」型 
  Respect language
 
相手側の動作などを言うときに、その動作をしている相手を 高くする。
Elevating the state of the other when referring to their actions of someone superior.
<例>
いらっしゃる
めし上がる
お使いになる
読まれる
ご利用になる
お忙しい
 
2) 謙譲語I:「うかがう・申し上げる」型
  Modest language I
 
自分側の動作などを言うときに、その動作の対象である相手を高くする。
Elevating the other when referring to the actions of yourself.
 
<例>
うかがう
申し上げる 
お目にかかる 
さし上げる 
ご案内する
 
3) 謙譲語Ⅱ (丁重語) : 「まいる・申す」型
  Modest language Ⅱ (Humble language)
 
自分側の動作などを言うときに、話している相手に対して丁寧に言う。
Modest language Ⅱ(humble) is used in order to treat the other politely, when referring to the actions of yourself.
<例>
まいる
申す
いたす
 
4) 丁寧語: 「です・ます」 型
  Polite language
 
話している相手に対して、 表現全体を丁寧に言う。
Showing respect towards the person to whom you are referring by, incorporating a degree of formality into the entire expression.
 
<例>
です
ます
 
5) 美化語: 「お酒・お料理」 型
  Beautification language
 
言葉や物事を美化して (きれいに) 言う。
Beautifying words or things with this form of speech.
 
<例>
お酒
お料理
 

Key:

There are various types of honorifics in Japanese. Honorifics are expressions that respect superiors and are used when you want to make a partner.
 
In addition, humble language is a humble expression used when you want to make a partner by lowering yourself.
 
And the polite word with “desu, masu” is an expression that is often used in everyday conversation and is used by anyone.
 
 
日本語にはさまざまな敬語があります。 敬語は、上司を尊重する表現であり、パートナーを作りたいときに使用されます。
 
また、謙虚な言葉は、自分を低くしてパートナーを作りたいときに使われる謙虚な表現です。
 
そして、「です、ます」という丁寧な言葉は、日常会話でよく使われ、誰もが使う表現です。

Review of e-learning course

  1. Greetings. Let’s get started! | No.1
  2. Let’s master katakana! | No. 2
  3. Have you mastered numbers? | No. 3
  4. Use your calendar! | No. 4
  5. The key to studying | No. 5
  6. [Video] How Characters Work 1 | No. 6
  7. [Video] How Characters Work 2 | No. 7
  8. [Video] How Characters Work 3 | No. 8
  9. Recommended Textbooks | No. 9
  10. The secret to learning a language | No. 10
  11. [Video] Let’s understand Japanese sounds! 1 | No. 11
  12. [Q&A] Why do you say “I’m sorry” when you say “Thank you”? | No. 12
  13. [Video] Let’s understand Japanese sounds! 2 | No. 13
  14. [Video] Student testimonial | No. 14
  15. [Video] Japanese Form, nouns, verbs, adjectives | No. 15
  16. [Video] Mastering the Japanese postposition | No. 16
  17. Podcasts useful for learning Japanese | No. 17
  18. Let’s use a polite form | No. 18
  19. [Video] Mastering the Japanese Form 3 | No. 19
  20. Useful apps for learning Japanese | No. 20
  21. [Video] Japanese postposition | No. 21
  22. The list of verb conjugation | No. 22
  23. Popular Japanese manga | No. 23
  24. [Video] Mastering the Japanese Form 4 | No. 24
  25. Summary of plain and polite forms | No. 25
  26. Review video learning | No. 26
  27. Useful websites for learning Japanese | No. 27
  28. [Video] Have you learned the conjugation of verbs? | No. 28
  29. What are -u verbs? | No. 29
  30. [Video] About verb groups | No. 30
  31. What are -Ru verbs? | No. 31
  32. [Video] Do you know the rules for verb conjugation? | No. 32
  33. [Q&A] Why do pedestrians wait even when there is no car? | No. 33
  34. What are -Irregular verbs? | No. 34
  35. [Video] Scenes where verb conjugation is used | No. 35
  36. Youtube for learning Japanese | No. 36
  37. What are -I adjectives? | No. 37
  38. What are -Na adjectives? | No. 38
  39. Adjective conjugation tables | No. 39
  40. [Video] Basics of speaking | No. 40
  41. Challenge JLPT. Try it for free! | No. 41
  42. 1 month free campaign | No. 42
  43. Why “honorifics” play an important role? | No. 43
  44. [Video] Let’s use a polite form! | No. 44
  45. Finding a job in Japan | No. 45
  46. [Q&A] Is it true that Japanese people do not have religion? | No. 46
  47. Download Perfect Honorific Master | No. 47
  48. [Video] Advanced if you can use honorifics | No. 48
  49. Readings for learning Japanese | No. 49
  50. [Video] Why you don’t have to repeat the subject? | No. 50
  51. Japan travel websites | No. 51
  52. [Video] Why is the oral language different? | No. 52
  53. [Video] How to count things | No. 53
  54. [Video] Many onomatopoeia peculiar to Japanese | No. 54
  55. Let’s review the classification and function of honorifics | No. 55
 
 

敬語をマスターするためのヒント| 56号

 

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